History Of Subcontinent From 712 To 1947 In Urdu Pdf
The history of preceding the country's independence in 1947 is shared with that of Afghanistan, India, and Iran. Spanning the western expanse of the Indian subcontinent and the eastern borderlands of the Iranian plateau, the region of present-day Pakistan served both as the fertile ground of a major civilization and as the gateway of South Asia to Central Asia and the Near East.
History Of Subcontinent From 712 To 1947 In Urdu Pdf
The Kushan Empire expanded out of what is now Afghanistan into the northwest of the subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor, Kujula Kadphises, about the middle of the 1st century CE. They were descended from an Indo-European, Central Asian people called the Yuezhi, a branch of which was known as the Kushans. By the time of his grandson, Kanishka the Great, the empire spread to encompass much of Afghanistan and the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares).
Download CSS Book Hindu Muslim Confrontation 712 to 1947 By Dr Sarfraz Ahmed Mirza for Css compulsory Subject Pakistan Affairs. This booklet covers the period from 712 to the creation of Pakistan 1947. Download this booklet free from The CSS Point.
From the late 12th century onwards, Muslim empires dominated the subcontinent, most notably the Delhi sultanate and Mughal empire. Various other Muslim kingdoms ruled most of South Asia from the mid-14th to late 18th centuries, including the Bahmani, Bengal, Gujarat, Malwa, Mysore, Carnatic and Deccan Sultanates. Though the Muslim dynasties in India were diversed in origin, they were linked together by the Persianate culture and Islam.
The Mughal empire was the second major Islamic empire to assert dominance over most of the Indian subcontinent between 1526 and 1857. The empire was founded by the Turco-Mongol leader Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate at the First Battle of Panipat. Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb are known as the six great Mughal Emperors. Apart from the brief interruption by the Afghan Sur dynasty between 1540 and 1556, the Mughals continued to rule in one form or other till 1857.
When Pakistan became a country on August 14th, 1947, to form the largest Muslim state in the world at that time. The creation of Pakistan was catalyst to the largest demographic movement in recorded history. Nearly seventeen million people-Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs-are reported to have moved in both directions between India and the two wings of Pakistan (the eastern wing is now Bangladesh). Sixty million of the ninety-five million Muslims on the Indian subcontinent became citizens of Pakistan at the time of its creation. Subsequently, thirty-five million Muslims remained inside India making it the largest Muslim minority in a non-Muslim state.
After Ayub Khan, General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan headed the second military regime from 1969-1971. By that time the country had been under military rule for thirteen of its twenty-five years of existence. This second military regime emphasized the extent to which the process of centralization under bureaucratic and military tutelage had fragmented Pakistani society and politics. The general elections of 1970 on the basis of adult franchise revealed for the first time ever in Pakistan's history how regionalism and social conflict had come to dominate politics despite the efforts at controlled development. The Awami League, led by Mujibur Rahman, campaigned on a six-point program of provincial autonomy, capturing all but one seat in East Pakistan and securing an absolute majority in the national assembly. In West Pakistan the Pakistan People's Party, led by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, had a populist platform that stole the thunder from the Islamic parties (the Muslim League, the oldest political party captured no more than a few seats) and emerged as the largest single bloc. The prospect of an Awami Leagues government was a threat to politicians in West Pakistan who in conspiracy with the military leadership prevented Mujibur from taking the reins of power. This was the final straw for the east wing who was already fed up with the their under-representation in all sectors of the government, economic deprivation and then the suppression of the democratic process. An armed rebellion in East Pakistan engendered all of these frustrations, which caused Indian military intervention to crush it. Pakistan was now involved in its third war with India, thus clearing the way for the establishment of Bangladesh in 1971.
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In 1947, after 200 years of control, the British finally quit the Indian subcontinent. Before leaving, the colonizers drew a line in the sand that formed two new dominions: Muslim-majority Pakistan and Hindu-majority India. Some 15 million people migrated (the largest human migration in history) and one to two million perished in the communal violence that followed.
Secularism, as conceived in our subcontinent, is a matter of having different religious communities living together in tranquillity and harmony, whereas in Pakistan, especially west Pakistan, from where many minorities choose to move out to India, secularism takes on a different role of being a matter of tranquillity and harmony between different sects of Islam. And yet getting to that point is very hard when the sects are defined in different theological terms and each theology feels that its word is the true interpretation of the word of God.
From 1947 onwards, when migrants from India, known as the Mohājirs, came to Sindh, the repertoire that dominated the local religiosity was that of a vernacular Sufism, to which both Sindhi Muslims and Hindus of all faiths subscribed. Consequently, in the competition between Sindhis and Mohājirs for the domination of the city of Hyderabad, negotiations between different religious repertoires played a prominent role. My hypothesis is that the Mawlā jā Qadam represented a crucial stake in the showdown between the Sindhis and the Mohājirs, more than a vector for the integration of the Mohājirs in the urban landscape. In what follows, I will demonstrate that, although the onomastic change of the site unambiguously indicates its coming under the control of the Mohājirs, as explained below, the ritual practices show a resilience of the vernacular Sufi substratum of Sindh.